HEIDELBERG (Germany) — Mr Eckart Würzner, a mayor on a mission to make his city emission-free, is not terribly impressed by promises from General Motors, Ford and other big automakers to swear off fossil fuels.rrNot that Mr Würzner, the mayor of Heidelberg, is against electric cars. The postcard-perfect city, in southern Germany, gives residents who buy a battery-powered vehicle a bonus of up to 1,000 euros (S$1,600). They get another 1,000 euros if they install a charging station.rrBut electric cars are low on the list of tools that Mr Würzner is using to try to cut Heidelberg’s impact on the climate, an effort that has given the city, home to Germany’s oldest university and an 800-year-old castle ruin, a reputation as a pioneer in environmentally conscious urban planning.rrMr Würzner’s goal is to reduce dependence on cars, no matter where they get their juice. Heidelberg is buying a fleet of hydrogen-powered buses, building a network of bicycle “superhighways” to the suburbs and designing neighbourhoods to discourage all vehicles and encourage walking.rrResidents who give up their cars get to ride public transportation free for a year.rr“If you need a car, use car-sharing,” Mr Würzner said in an interview at Heidelberg’s Baroque-style City Hall, which was nearly deserted because of the pandemic.rr“If you can’t use car-sharing because you’re living too far outside and there is no mass transportation, then use the car, but just to the train station and not to downtown.”rrHeidelberg is at the forefront of a movement that is probably strongest in Europe but has a presence in plenty of communities around the world, including US cities like Austin, Texas, and Portland, Oregon.rrThe pandemic has given many citizens a taste of what densely packed urban areas would be like without so much traffic, and they like it.rrVows of fossil fuel abstinence by carmakers recently, including GM, Ford Motor and Jaguar Land Rover, are a tacit admission that they will no longer be welcome in cities at all unless they radically clean up their acts.rrEven then, the tide of history may be against them as urban planners try to free up space now occupied by vehicles.rrDozens of cities in Europe, including Rome, London and Paris, plan to limit centre city traffic to emission-free vehicles during the next decade. Some, like Stockholm and Stuttgart, the German home of Mercedes-Benz, already ban older diesel vehicles.rrNational governments are adding to the pressure. Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Slovenia say they will ban sales of internal combustion cars after 2030. Britain and Denmark say they will do so in 2035, allowing only hybrids after 2030, and Spain and France in 2040.rrSuch declarations of intent “certainly push vehicle manufacturers,” said Ms Sandra Wappelhorst, a senior researcher at the International Council on Clean Transportation in Berlin who tracks plans by companies and governments to phase out internal combustion.rrHeidelberg, a city of 160,000 people on the Neckar River, which was threatening to overflow its banks recently after unusually heavy rains, provides a glimpse of how an automobile-light city of the future may look.rrHeidelberg is one of only six cities in Europe considered “innovators” by C40 Cities, an organisation that promotes climate-friendly urban policies and whose chair is Mr Michael Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York. (The others are Oslo, Norway; Copenhagen, Denmark; Venice, Italy; and Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the Netherlands.)rrAmong the city’s measures to make cars irrelevant are building bridges that would allow cyclists to bypass congested areas or cross the Neckar without having to compete for road space with motor vehicles.rrBuildings are also important. The city has cut energy consumption of schools and other city buildings by 50 per cent in the last decade — no small feat when many of the structures are hundreds of years old.rrHeidelberg’s mile-long pedestrian zone, usually thronged with tourists but nearly empty recently because of the pandemic, is said to be Germany’s longest. But the best showcase for the city’s emission-free ambitions is built atop a former rail freight yard on the edge of town.rrIn 2009 work began on the Bahnstadt, or Rail City. The vacant parcel, which had to be cleared of three unexploded bombs from World War II, offered planners a blank slate with which to create a climate-neutral neighbourhood.rrThe modern apartment buildings, architecturally the opposite of Heidelberg’s Baroque city centre, are so well insulated that they require almost no energy to heat. What warmth they do require comes from a plant just outside the neighbourhood that burns waste wood.rrCars are not banned from the Bahnstadt, but there is almost no traffic. Most streets are dead ends. Apartment buildings are arranged around generous courtyards with playgrounds and connected by walkways.rrThe one street that cuts through the triangular neighbourhood has a speed limit of 30 kilometers an hour, or less than 20 mph. Bicycles have the right of way.rrThe Bahnstadt, with 5,600 residents and still growing, has its own kindergarten and elementary school, a community centre, two supermarkets, several bakeries and cafes, two bicycle shops and six car-sharing stations, each with two electric vehicles.rrHeidelberg’s main train station and a tram stop are a short walk away, and a bicycle path follows the route of an old rail line to the city centre.rrThere are also jobs. The Bahnstadt has several large office buildings whose tenants include the German subsidiary of Reckitt Benckiser, the maker of consumer products like Clearasil and Woolite.rr“The idea is to get back to the classic early city, where living and working are closely intertwined,” said Mr Ralf Bermich, head of Heidelberg’s Office for Environmental Protection.rrMr Würzner, the mayor, said his goal was to make Heidelberg climate neutral by 2030, an ambitious target. The city plans to generate its own wind and solar power and is installing a hydrogen filling station for a fleet of 42 buses powered by hydrogen fuel cells.rrThe city wanted to order hundreds of the buses, but Mr Würzner complained that the bus-makers had been slow to respond to demand for emission-free transportation.rr“We can’t get enough,” he said. (Daimler, which makes buses in Neu-Ulm, about 2 1/2 hours from Heidelberg, does not yet sell a city bus powered solely by hydrogen.)rrMr Würzner, who drives an experimental hydrogen-powered Mercedes, acknowledged that not every city could afford to do all the things that had made Heidelberg a showcase for environmentally friendly planning.rrThe University of Heidelberg, one of Germany’s most prestigious universities, has spawned numerous research institutes that provide a solid tax base. The residents tend to be well educated and affluent.rr“It’s true the city is in a quite good financial situation,” Mr Würzner said.rrBut he said he often heard from mayors in Europe, the United States and Asia who wanted to emulate Heidelberg’s strategy.rr“We all know we have to go in this direction,” he said. “It’s just a question of how fast.” THE NEW YORK TIMESr
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