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BEIJING - As a key producer, importer and consumer of most of the world's major commodities, China is uniquely sensitive to sharp price rises or supply disruptions in the raw materials on which its manufacturing sector and massive population depends.
After the prices of critical industrial inputs from coal to copper surged to record highs this year, Beijing deployed its most comprehensive and far-reaching measures to date to try and tame commodity markets, including selling metal from strategic reserves and threatening to punish any entities found to be hoarding supplies or inflating prices.
Below is a list of key commodities which have been targeted by Beijing's recent measures.
China is the top importer and the second largest consumer of crude oil.
Over the past 5 years, oil imports have grown by an average annual rate of nearly 10%, and the country accounts for 44% of the worldwide increase in oil imports since 2015, when Beijing issued import quotas to independent refiners.
Beijing's crackdown earlier this year on the misuse of import quotas could now see China's oil import growth sink to the lowest in two decades.
China accounts for about half the world's copper consumption.
The red metal is used in home appliances, power cables and electronics and has seen a huge demand rebound as global economies recover from the pandemic.
After local prices hit record highs this year, Beijing announced rare strategic reserve sales.
China consumed 11.98 million tonnes of refined copper in 2020, when its imports jumped 37% to 4.67 million tonnes, according to state-backed research house Antaike.
China, the world's top aluminium producer and consumer, produced record levels of the metal used in cars, beverage cans, wires and cables last year.
In 2020, output was 37.08 million tonnes, up 4.7% according to NBS data, while consumption rose 4.8% to 38.35 million tonnes, according to Antaike.
China's primary aluminium imports rose more than 14 fold to 1.06 million tonnes in 2020, NBS data showed.
China's refined zinc imports fell 21.1% to 477,406 tonnes in 2020, customs data showed.
It consumed 6.724 million tonnes of refined zinc in 2020, up 1.3% year-on-year, accounting for just over half of global usage, according to the International Lead and Zinc Study Group.
China's own refined zinc production last year rose 2.7% to 6.43 million tonnes, according to NBS.
The world's biggest coal miner and consumer produced 3.84 billion tonnes of coal in 2020, up 2.4%, data from the National Bureau of Statistics showed.